This week we delved into the ideas surrounding the changing natures of Journalism.
Alysen says audiences are changing, citizen journalism is becoming more common, there are now multiple inputs and outputs of news such as online, attitudes towards journalists and news vs content (Alysen, 2012).
Then we looked at the basic structure of a newsroom.
- News director
- Chief of staff
- Camera operators
- Studio director
The readings for this week were chapters 3,4 and 5.
Chapter three; Source of news, discussed what makes news, encouraging readers to always refer to the following news values:
- Human interest
These values help determine what news means to your audience.
This week we also discussed camera shooting techniques and how to set up camera equipment.
We practised the following shooting techniques:
- Static: Holding a shot for 10-15 seconds.
- Pan: Left to right, back to left.
- Tilt: Low to high, high to low.
- Zoom: Close to long, long to close.
All of these techniques follow the same recording times:
- Start on one side.
- Record three to four seconds.
- Move five seconds recording.
- Hold and record for five seconds.
Rules of Thirds: The division of a frame into nine sections gives guidance for framing an image.
The chapter continues with discussing news suppliers, which are ways in which news is sourced or found. Here are the main sources.
- Day file
- Official proceedings
- Wire services
- Other radio and television
- In-house programs
- Niche media
- Media releases
- News conferences
- Reporters’ contacts
- Emergency services
- Tip offs, social media, amateur vision
The chapter moves on to discuss foreign news and its suppliers. It talks about how foreign news plays only a small part in local bulletins, apart from ABC, SBS and Sky News. These stations receive foreign vision from syndicated services. In saying that, all networks have foreign correspondents, and a figure of Australian foreign bureaus highlights where in the world the Australian networks are found (page 36).
Public relations (PR) is then discussed, as the chapter talks about a journalists’ role to provide news to the public while being aware of PR stunts, avoiding spin, video news releases, lobby groups and hoaxes.
Chapter four; News packaging, focuses on the different story formats used, the inverted pyramid, types of broadcast news stories and gives plenty of examples of script layouts for all styles of news writing.
Chapter five; News gathering, highlights the story construction sequence.
Figure 5.1 (page 59) clearly defines the sequence in the following order:
- Interviews and recording
- Distribution and broadcast
The importance of NATSOTS (natural sound) being used in packages is mentioned. These are used to create an ambient feeling of ‘being there’.
Piece to camera (PTC)
BBC reporter David Shukman says piece to cameras gives a reporter physical presence to a story (Shukman, 2016). It’s usually about two sentences long and delivered by the reporter into the lens talking in a conversational tone directly to their audience.
Working to a deadline is expected in all fields of journalism. Good planning and following a sequence will help avoid any issues. Keeping in touch with the producer of COS during the production of your story is a must – just in case anything changes or goes wrong. The producer may have to shuffle the rundown.
Reporting live and live crosses
Being able to think on your feet is beneficial to live crosses and is a valuable skill in broadcast journalism. Live crosses tells the audience the story being presented is current. Presenting a live cross may be from little notes, but it’s mostly impromptu. This chapter discusses how it’s important to remain calm and to focus on the key points of the story, starting with the location and any information you have that the audience can’t see from the vision.